Jewish Sects and Movements

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Judaism is one of the oldest religions in the world. While adherents are bonded by certain core beliefs, there is also diversity within the faith. Differences between Jewish denominations or sects, which are more commonly known as "movements," reflect varying responses to changing times and cultures.

The historical Jewish movements (Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes) were responses to the Roman rule of Israel, while the major modern movements (Reform, Orthodox, and Conservative) are responses to the modern, secular culture of Europe and America. Hasidism and Kabbalah are mystical approaches to the Jewish faith. Jewish mysticism emphasizes inward, spiritual experiences over intellectual and rational knowledge.

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Conservative Judaism

## Conservative Judaism: beliefs, distinctness, practices A modern-day branch of the Jewish religion, Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside the USA) is a moderate sect - on the spectrum of Jewish beliefs and practices - that seeks to avoid the extremes of Orthodox Judaism and Reform Judaism...

Hasidism

Hasidic Judaism arose in 12th-century Germany as a movement emphasizing asceticism and mystical experience born out of love and humility before God...

Kabbalah

Kabbalah Glossary

Orthodox Judaism

## What is Orthodox Judaism? A modern-day branch of the Jewish religion, Orthodox Judaism is the most traditional expression of modern Judaism when compared to Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism...

Reform Judaism

## What is Reform Judaism? Reform Judaism is the most liberal expression of modern Judaism. In America, Reform Judaism is organized under the Union for Reform Judaism (formerly known as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations), whose mission is "to create and sustain vibrant Jewish congregations wherever Reform Jews live...

Zionism

The Holocaust and its aftermath left millions of refugees, including many Jews who had lost most or all of their family members and posessions, and often faced persistent anti-Semitism in their home countries...

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