Adoptionism is the doctrine that Jesus Christ was born a human and was later "adopted" by God as his Son. More specifically, it refers to the heresy that arose in 8th-century Spain under Elipandus, Archbishop of Toledo, and Felix, Bishop of Urgel. Both men taught that Christ was the divine Son of God, but the human Jesus (the "son of David") was only the adopted Son of God. Felix was condemned by Pope Leo III in 798. Felix recanted, but Elipandus remained firm until his death shortly afterwards.

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