Who really was the legendary robber kudeyar

Who really was the legendary robber kudeyar
MOSCOW, 23 Aug-RIA Novosti. Scientists are trying to solve the mystery of the most famous robber — ataman Kudeyar. In some legends, he appears as the protector of the poor and the main enemy of the rich, in others-a powerful sorcerer who amassed untold treasures. About who could be the prototype of a character in Russian folklore — in the material RIA Novosti.In the 70s of the XIX century, Russia experienced, in modern terms, a boom in domestic tourism. Surprisingly, they did not go to the famous resorts of the Caucasus or Crimea, but to the provinces of the Central part of the country: Tula, Ryazan, Voronezh and Lipetsk.The reason for this is the news in the Newspapers: "The peasants found a Golden treasure under the mountain!" This happened with enviable regularity — and many went to the villages to try their luck.The locals believed it was gold stolen by Kudeyar. About the famous robber, who inspired fear in the black earth, since ancient times composed legends. And often he appears as a "Russian Robin hood" - robbing, for example, a boyar and giving money to the peasants. Or even decide not to oppress the common people."From the position of traditional morality, folklore villains were perceived negatively. But the people treated them with compassion. It was believed that they were for justice and only fight against unrighteous people. And ordinary people are protected. Russian Russian national consciousness is characterized by this myth," explains Ekaterina Dorokhova, Deputy head of the Center for Russian folklore at the State Russian house of folk art.In other stories, on the contrary, he is depicted as a sorcerer.  They say that "by the power of the devil" he looted so much good that he did not have time to spend it. Therefore, throughout Central Russia, rumor has it, hundreds of treasure chests are buried.Where only you will not find place names associated with the legendary robber. Kudeyar's mountain has its own in Saratov (Loch village), Ryazan (Chulkovo village), Tula (near Belev), Oryol and Voronezh regions. And how many tracts with the name Kudeyarovka-and not to count.Although Kadeer a hundred years ago was known as the most popular thug on it, in contrast to Stenka Razin or Yemelyan Pugachev, very little is known.Historians have long argued about the dates of life of the prototype of this character, until they found a very interesting document-the report of the Tula voivode for Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich. It dates from 1640."Old people said long ago, about forty years ago, about ataman Kudeyar and his robbers, who robbed a lot and killed,"it said.Apparently, scientists believe, he lived in the late XV — first half of the XVI century. This is indirectly indicated by the folk legend about the mysterious "Prince Yuri Vasilyevich, the true heir to the Moscow throne".Word of mouth is based on a real fact. In 1525, Grand Duke Vasily III obtained a divorce from the Metropolitan of Moscow from Solomonia Saburova. The reason for those times is good: I could not give birth to a child to the monarch. For this, he exiled her to a monastery, and took Elena Glinskaya, the mother of the future Tsar Ivan the terrible, as his wife.Here is only a new spouse in people disliked. It was rumored that the Glinsky clan had thus eliminated competitors from the Saburov clan. And Solomonia, already being in the monastery, gave birth to a son — the first-born Basil III. It was to him that the Grand Ducal throne was to pass.But the power was in the hands of Elena Glinskaya-widowed, she ruled the country on behalf of the infant Prince Ivan Vasilyevich. And his half-brother, who was "brought up in remote monasteries by monks", gathered a large army. He attracted to his side either the Crimean Tatars, who constantly raided the Moscow state, or the Persians — they actively traded in the South of modern Russia. They named him Kudeyar — which means "beloved of God"in Farsi.The legend was especially popular in oprichnina, when ordinary people did not hide their discontent with the tsarist repressions. However, historians doubt its veracity. There are no documents confirming that Ivan the terrible had a half-brother, although such a significant fact could not remain unnoticed in the Chronicles.Despite the unhistorical, the version about Kudeyar as the half-brother of the king is the most common among the people. But not the only one.According to another legend, kudeyar is the heir to the Polish throne. His father, Zhigmont Batory, a nephew of king Stefan Batory, left the country due to intrigues. And together with his son, he entered the service of Ivan the terrible, protecting the southern borders of the Moscow Kingdom.There is a version that kudeyar belonged to the oprichniks, but after the Tsar's disgrace he fled. Out of revenge, he began to attack former "colleagues", protecting the common people from arbitrariness.However, these theories are not supported by documentary evidence. But historians have found the name of the robber in one of the letters of the Oprichnik Vasily Gryazny, who was captured by the Crimean Tatars. He assured Ivan IV that Khan Devlet-Giray captured Moscow in 1571 because of the treachery of a boyar from the city of Belev-Kudeyar Tishenkov: he showed the invaders secret fords across the Oka.In favor of this hypothesis, the fact that the birthplace of Kudeyar folk legends often call it Belev. However, there is no other evidence to confirm Tishenkov's connection with the famous robber."I think Kudeyar has more than one prototype. This is more of a collective image, " says Ekaterina Dorokhova.In addition, in the XVI century, according to documents, the name kudeyar was considered one of the most popular in Russia.According to Dorokhova, each locality had its own kudeyar. Therefore, the legends differ depending on the region.Among the old believers, he acts as a defender of the faith. Their kudeyar is not even a robber, but a prayer book."I heard a similar legend about a villain who went to a monastery from my grandmother. The legend spread in the Moscow region, while the name of Kudeyar was not called: they say, robbed, and then asceticism in the desert. This is a characteristic feature of our mentality: "If you do not sin, you will not repent. If you do not repent — you will not be saved, " Dorokhova notes.According to another version, kudeyar went to the North to atone for his sins."There is a theory that he was a monk here," says Abbot Simeon, Abbot of the Solovetsky monastery in Kemi.This is not surprising. For five centuries of existence, the priest reminds, the monastery in Solovki attracted many people from all over the country."Old residents said that in the local old cemetery they saw a slab with the inscription" Monk Pitirim, former kudeyar, is buried here." So this is a historical person, " says father Simeon.However, the cemetery has not been preserved. Restoration works are underway on the territory of the monastery, and scientists are discovering new details of the monastery's life. Perhaps they will find the grave of Kudeyar and shed light on his secrets.
Источник: https://ria.ru/20200823/kudeyar-1576148599.html
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